Baby Can’t Sleep? Kids Have Insomnia? Tips On Using Melatonin


How to help your baby get some sleep?

News this week from Hasbro Children’s Hospital in Rhode Island: A lot of kids don’t sleep. They needed a study to figure that out?

The study also found that youngsters with insomnia are medicated for it, perhaps too much. Ironically, a day or two before this story came out, CNN announced a study decreeing it “abusive” for parents to give a cold or allergy medicine (like Benadryl), to help a child sleep instead of scream through a long flight. What’s a parent to do?

This is one of the many dilemmas that prompted me to write Special Needs Kids Go Pharm-Free. Kids are medicated for more problems than ever before, but less healthy than a generation ago. And sleep is so crucial to overall health.

Sleeplessness in a baby, child, or teen is one problem you might be able to tackle easier than you think, with nutrition tools instead of medications.There are several options to choose from if you’re wondering about supplements. Melatonin is just one of them. Others include theanine, chamomile, rooibos, ashwaghanda, holy basil, taurine, tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, magnesium glycinate, calcium lactate, and more. They can be helpful, and are best used with some professional guidance.

Food intolerances and digestive issues can disrupt sleep too. I often work with parents to rule these out, before adding a supplement to improve sleep. I believe it’s best to work at the root cause when possible.

Melatonin is a safe and easy place to start, as long as you’ve ruled out any serious health problems with your pediatrician first. It can trigger intense dreams in children who don’t need it, and may make your child more wakeful. This may imply a need for different supports along the serotonin pathway, which is shared with melatonin. Or it may suggest other supports are needed altogether – for adrenal glands, certain minerals, for reducing inflammation, or for digestive issues. If melatonin is helpful, use only as long as needed and in the lowest effective dose. More is not better. And, know that it’s worth looking more broadly at your child’s functional nutrition picture. Using melatonin long term may reduce testosterone levels or may mask other imbalances needing support. Here’s an excerpt about melatonin from the chapter on sleep in my book Special Needs Kids Go Pharm-Free: Nutrition Focused Tools To Minimize Meds and Maximize Health and Well Being (© contact me for permissions) :


“... As mentioned earlier, melatonin is not a medication, but a hormone we make ourselves to signal the brain into sleep. I have not used melatonin in children younger than eighteen months. Is it safe for infants? Probably, but this is a question to review with your pediatrician. Infants make a lot of melatonin naturally; if they aren’t sleeping, it may be quite depleted, a state that is possibly detrimental for them. Some research suggests that melatonin may be lifesaving when it comes to SIDS: Infants who die from SIDS have very low levels of melatonin in their brains. Because melatonin is a powerful antioxidant, there is speculation that it may play a role in preventing the severe, life-threatening oxidative stress that occurs with SIDS. Discuss giving your baby melatonin with your health care professional.SNKGPF-cover-design-199x300

If your infant is persisting in a stressful, screaming pattern at night instead of sleeping, melatonin may be useful, but ask your pediatrician about dosing first. Prolonged screaming is not healthy for infants. It is extremely costly for them, in terms of energy balance. Young infants need more than twice the calories per pound that a school-age child requires in order to maintain a normal growth pattern. When an infant is awake more than normal, or expending precious energy screaming night after night instead of sleeping, growth and immune function can suffer. This can, of course, also harm an infant’s delicate emotional well-being and threaten normal attachment to his or her parent.

Young children should not need more than 1–2 milligrams of melatonin per night. Start with a very low dose, and as always, inform your provider team before you start. Use the least amount to encourage sleep, and no more. Many preparations for melatonin are available that are suited to children, as drops, melting wafers, chewables, or sublingual sprays. These are given under the tongue and work fairly quickly; they don’t need to pass through the stomach and small intestine to take effect. Some parents give melatonin 30–60 minutes before bedtime, to shorten the time it takes a child to actually drop off. Rules for using melatonin:

  • Start with a quarter-milligram dose for young toddlers.
  • Start with a half-milligram if your child is two years or older.
  • Stop at the lowest effective dose. More is not necessarily better.
  • Children with autism may need more. Still start at a low dose, and work up slowly.
  • Older children (70 pounds or more) can start with a 1-milligram dose.
  • Periodically try weaning your child off melatonin. He may no longer need it.
  • An effective dose lets your child fall asleep in about 30 minutes or less, and stay asleep, most nights per week.
  • Don’t use melatonin preparations with other supplements in them. If there is a problem, you won’t know which component is causing the trouble.
  • Avoid melatonin preparations that include pyridoxine (vitamin B6). This vitamin can trigger wakefulness. Your child may do fine with extra B6 early in the day, but may struggle to sleep if it is given at night.

Children with autism, anxiety, depression, or other mood disorders may benefit from a higher dose of melatonin. If your doctor isn’t sure on dosing, ask for a referral to someone who is sure. This may be a psychiatrist, a naturopathic doctor, or even a neurologist. A clinical trial that used melatonin in children with autism showed no side effects, other than good ones: There was a reduction in compulsive and ritualistic behaviors while the kids with autism used melatonin. Some of the children needed up to 6 milligrams of melatonin to reap benefits. All children are different, so start with the smallest appropriate dose and use only what is needed to elicit the benefit of sleep.


For more on how to use other supplements for sleep, as well as how to troubleshoot foods that may be keeping a child awake, pick up a copy of Special Needs Kids Go Pharm-Free. Wondering what else is in the book? Click here for table of contents.

Terrible Diets: OK For Kids With Autism?


Mac and cheese pizza. For real.

According to research on growth, food intakes, and kids with autism, published in  Pediatrics, these kids tend to eat terrible diets. But it doesn’t really matter.

Wait – what?

I have quantified food intakes and assessed growth patterns on hundreds of children with autism.  Yep, terrible diets are common for kids with autism. But after that, I part ways with the Pediatrics article. There’s so much wrong with it, it’s hard to know where to begin. But let’s start here, with this parent’s quote about how, well, preposterous this study’s conclusion is (as printed in The Chelsea Standard, Parents Adjust To Life With Autistic Child), as she describes her own child’s descent into autism:  “…he suddenly stopped talking. He stopped eating any food except for pretzels. Instead, he ate sand, wood and rocks.”

The message from Pediatrics on this lets you doctor conclude that this should trigger no particular concern.  It’s okay for kids to eat nothing but pretzels, sand, wood, and rocks. No medical intervention required.

Did the research mean to suggest this is okay …as long as a child has autism? Yikes.

I’ve seen eating patterns like this in kids with autism many times, that scenario in which a child with autism actually eats stuff that isn’t even food  – like sand, wood, rocks… or paperclips, ice from treads of shoes, dog poop – all of which I have encountered in practice, in kids with autism. Aaaaand it isn’t okay. Kids with autism are still human children, so I’m pretty sure that means that poop, dirt-filled ice, sand, rocks, metal objects, and wood are not good for them.

Any classic nutrition text describes “pica”. This research even noted that the children with autism had pica at nearly six times the rate of their typical peers – but inexplicably, the authors don’t mention that finding in their discussion or conclusions.  Mercury poisoning, lead toxicity, poor zinc status, copper imbalance, or iron deficiency tend to accompany an eating pattern like this, in any child.  Pica is not benign; it is associated with poor impulse control and obsessive compulsive behaviors – common features for children with autism – and with dangerous exposures to metals that can injure the brain. This is just one of many nutrition problems I routinely find when I complete nutrition assessments on children with autism.

In fact, in 11 years in practice, I have never encountered a child with autism who did not have a treatable nutrition problem.  They do typically eat extremely limited diets.  It isn’t unusual for me to see no more than three items on a food diary: “Gogurt x 3; chocolate milk 4-5 cups/day; plain noodles, 1 big bowl”  …and this is what a child will have been eating year in and year out.  It’s no stretch to intuit that this will leave any child bereft of adequate nutrition to learn, grow, sleep, thrive, or behave to their potential.  We would never leave a typically developing child on a diet of nothing but literally only coffee cake and milk for years (another example from my practice).

What happens to children who eat like this?  My case files illustrate that they get sick more often, become constipated, behave poorly, acquire anemia, acquire deficits of nutrients that impair them functionally, can’t focus, don’t sleep, and may not grow as expected, just for starters.  But now, we can rest assured knowing that this is okay, as long as your child has autism, thanks to this research.

I saw flaws in the Pediatrics study that let the data show – essentially, nothing.  Here’s where the study went wrong – the errors are many, and egregious:

1) The study group was disproportionately small compared to the control group: There were only 79 children with autism, but nearly 13,000 typical control children.  This diffuses differences that might exist between the two groups.  The controls will present such a wide swath of eating patterns as to make any difference with the small clinical group vanish.

2) The authors used a tool called a food frequency questionnaire that mothers filled out.  This is a nutrition researcher’s weakest instrument for assessing diets.  It doesn’t actually quantify a food intake.  Rather than tell you what nutrients a child is actually eating – how many calories, how many grams of protein or fat, or how much iron or vitamin A daily – it just tells, for example, whether or not a child may have eaten a piece of fruit this week, or not.   It is better suited to population nutrition studies, where thousands of food intake records are compared between one population group or another.  It is not adequately informative for a study of this type with a small data set of 79 kids, because it doesn’t describe what the kids actually ate.

3) The authors mixed diet strategies in the test group.  Some children were using special diets, some were not.  This is confounding.  In practice, I observe that children with autism on special diets eat more nutritious food intakes than those who are nutrition-treatment naive.

4) Food questionnaires were filled out by parents.  In practice, I find that parents vary widely for how accurately they report what their kids eat.  I routinely facilitate this piece of the nutrition assessment process because parents inevitably make gross errors.  This is a tremendous weakness in the only data actually collected by the authors (other data came from pre-existing health records).

5) The authors were allowed to invent then use their own contrivance, something they called a “food variety score”.   There is no precedent to support that this is a valid instrument or not.

6) The authors refer to growth data but do not include it.  BMI is referenced but excluded.  I routinely find in practice that children with autism fall into growth regression or growth failure, so I was eager to see this information.  The authors instead vaguely state that “Weight and height measurements collected by health visitors as part of health surveillance were extracted from the Avon Child Health Computer database.”  and   “At the age of 7 years, all children in the ALSPAC were invited to a special research clinic at which they were weighed and measured.”  Were the children with autism anthropometrically assessed or not?  Where is the BMI comparison?  What is a “special research clinic” (is it like Dr Wakefield’s infamous birthday party?), and were the children assessed, or just invited to be assessed?

7) The authors refer to hemoglobin data but don’t include it.  I have found many children with autism to be in poor iron status – again, I was eager to read this piece.  The data simply isn’t there and once more, sweeping conclusions are made anyway.  Additionally, hemoglobin status alone is not sufficient to support the statements made here about iron status between these groups. Iron status was not measured; the disparity of size between the two groups is too large to find a difference; and, children with autism who begin diet corrections may correct an iron deficit, thereby further confounding the data.

8 – The authors state that energy (calorie) intakes and many nutrient intakes were comparable in both groups.  But they never measured these.  Energy and nutrient intakes were never actually quantified in the study at all.  Note that none are reported either.  There is an inane table in the article’s appendix that lists several nutrients in a comparison of frequencies of intakes that is oblique at best, invalid at worst.  It looks impressive, with a long list of individual nutrients followed by statistical test measures, but it states virtually nothing.  Odds Ratio (OR) is not a quantity.  This table deceives readers with an impression that nutrients were quantified.  The only accession the authors make about this is in the cryptic title of the table:  “Details of the Diet of Children With ASDs”.  What exactly is meant by “details”?

Another “Dietary Comparison” table in the text lists macronutrients, again giving the impression that these were quantified.  Again the table only gives statistical test measures, not quantities.  Readers are left to simply trust that the authors interpretations are valid; there is no actual data given for us to assess ourselves.

Nutrients intakes were never in fact quantified and compared at all – but the authors make sweeping conclusions anyway about the comparable levels of nutrients eaten by both groups, claiming that there are no notable differences.  This appears to be intentionally misleading.

This statement didn’t smell right to me: “No differences were found between children with ASDs and their peers in the balance of carbohydrates, protein, and fats consumed, which suggests that satiety mechanisms are not impaired in ASDs. No differences were apparent in minerals in the diet, including iron and calcium.”  Note that the authors gingerly say “balance of” nutrients, not actual amounts of nutrients.  Stating that “no differences were apparent” is not valid because measures to quantify differences were not used.  Mineral intakes were not quantified, and no one assessed mineral status in signs, symptoms, or lab studies.

It’s odd that a journal like this would permit publication of such a poorly done study that appears to have bias built into it. If a diet of wood, rocks, and sand is bad for a typically developing kid, it’s bad for any kid. No amount of busy looking tables can hide bad work – but it’s an old trick in the academic press. Don’t be deterred if you are concerned about your child’s diet, growth, or eating habits. Ask questions and if your pediatrician can’t help, I’d be glad to – use my contact form to get in touch.